Since Nader’s inception of the throne, he had a desire for the riches of the Mughal Empire as it was famous for the antiquities developed by Shah Jahan. The Mughal province of Kabul (present-day Afghanistan) also became a hiding zone for the enemies of Nader (particularly people of the Ghilzai Tribe) and even after several deliberations with Muhammad Shah (Ruler of the Mughal Empire), the rebels were not handed over to Nader. Thus, in the scorching summer of 1738 with a large army of Turkomens, Iranians, and Pashtuns, he barged into Kabul and plundered the Mughal strong-rooms that had been filled up with the riches created by Shah Jahan, a century ago. Nasir Khan, who was the governor of Kabul collected 20,000 men at Khyber Pass (mountain connecting present-day Afghanistan and Northwest Pakistan) and arranged columns of cannons with an infantry of over 1,25,000 military personnel, most of them on horseback and tried to resist Nader Shah from moving forward and making gains in Delhi. Bowing down to Nader’s military capabilities that were inspired from the Mongol Battle Tactics of mobility, cavalry, and logistics, Nasir Khan had to surrender, while his men who could not flee were killed while Nasir was spared, as Nader’s end goal was to loot the Mughal Empire of its riches. By November 1738, there was an environment of awe and dread with the name of Nader Shah, as he entered Peshawar, where he sent a letter to Muhammad Shah Rangila in Delhi, claiming that he had entered India ‘purely out of zeal for Islam and friendship for you and expressing outrage that infidels in the Deccan had dared to exact tribute from the emperor’s dominions’.
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